Side Effects

Flushing of the face, nausea, vomiting, and fast heartbeat may sometimes occur and can be lessened by giving this medication more slowly. Burning/redness/irritation at the injection site, fever, chills, and numbness/tingling of the hands/feet may also occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

Remember that this medication has been prescribed because your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: signs of anemia (such as tiredness, low energy, pale skin color, shortness of breath), new or worsening bleeding/bruising.

This medication may rarely cause serious blood clots. Get medical help right away if you notice any of the following very serious side effects: pain/redness/swelling/weakness of the arms or legs, calf pain/swelling that is warm to the touch, coughing up blood, chest/jaw/left arm pain, sudden vision changes, confusion, trouble speaking, weakness on one side of the body, sudden severe headache, fainting.

A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

In the US – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Uses

This product contains human factor VIII (also called antihemophilic factor) and von Willebrand factor complex. Factors are proteins normally found in the blood that help the blood to thicken (clot) and stop any bleeding. People with low levels of factor VIII and von Willebrand factor are at risk for bleeding longer after an injury/surgery and for bleeding inside the body (especially into the joints and muscles). This product is used to temporarily replace the missing factors and reduce bleeding.Different brands of this product have different amounts of these factors, and so have different uses. These products are not interchangeable. Do not change brands of this medication without the approval of your doctor. Some products are used to control and prevent bleeding episodes in people with low levels of factor VIII (hemophilia A). Some products are used to treat bleeding episodes in people with low levels of von Willebrand factor (von Willebrand disease) who do not respond to or cannot tolerate desmopressin. Some products are used to prevent excessive bleeding during and after surgery in patients with von Willebrand disease.

How to use Wilate Vial

This medication is given by slow injection into a vein as directed by your doctor. How fast you receive this medication depends on your dose and how you respond to it. See Side Effects section.

This medication is given in a hemophilia treatment center or hospital. In some cases, patients may be able to give this medication to themselves at home. If your doctor directs you to give this medication at home, read the product information available from your pharmacist before you start using this medication and each time you get a refill. Learn all preparation and usage instructions in the product package. If you have any questions, ask your health care professional.

If the medication and the solution used to mix it were refrigerated, bring both to room temperature before combining. After adding the solution to the powder, gently swirl the vial to completely dissolve the powder. Do not shake the vial. Before using this product, check it visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. After the medication is mixed, use right away.

The dosage is based on your medical condition, weight, blood test results, and response to treatment. Follow your doctor's instructions closely. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you have any questions.

Learn how to store and discard needles and medical supplies safely. Consult your pharmacist.

Tell your doctor if your condition does not improve or if it worsens.

Precautions

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to any clotting factor products; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history.

Manufacturers of some factor VIII products recommend that you monitor your heartbeat during treatment. If your heart starts to beat faster, it is recommended that you give this medication more slowly or temporarily stop the infusion until your heart rate returns to normal. Consult your doctor for more details.

This medication is made from human blood. Even though the blood is carefully tested, and this medication goes through a special manufacturing process, there is an extremely small chance that you may get infections from the medication (for example, viruses such as hepatitis). Consult your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

Overdose

If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

Do not share this medication with others.

Lab tests (such as factor VIII levels, von Willebrand factor levels, clotting tests) should be done while you are using this medication. Keep all medical and lab appointments. Consult your doctor for more details.

It is important to follow the dosing schedule as directed by your doctor. If you miss a dose, ask your doctor or pharmacist right away for a new dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

Store the medication according to the manufacturer's instructions. Some brands of this medication can be stored at room temperature while other brands need to be refrigerated. Ask your pharmacist for more details about the brand you use. Do not freeze this product. Protect the product from light. After each dose, throw away any unused portion. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

Interactions

Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

    Side Effects

    Pain, redness, and tenderness at the injection site may occur. Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea may also occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

    Remember that this medication has been prescribed because your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

    Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: yellow-gray-brown tooth discoloration, signs of kidney problems (such as change in the amount of urine, pink urine), signs of liver problems (such as loss of appetite, stomach/abdominal pain, yellowing eyes/skin, dark urine).

    Eravacycline may rarely cause increased pressure around the brain (intracranial hypertension-IH). The risk of this side effect is greater for women of childbearing age who are overweight or who have had IH in the past. If IH develops, it usually goes away after eravacycline is stopped; however, there is a chance of permanent vision loss or blindness. Get medical help right away if you have: severe/lasting headache, vision changes (such as blurred/double vision, decreased vision, sudden blindness), nausea/vomiting that doesn't stop.

    This medication may rarely cause a severe intestinal condition due to a bacteria called C. difficile. This condition may occur during treatment or weeks to months after treatment has stopped. Tell your doctor right away if you develop: diarrhea that doesn't stop, abdominal or stomach pain/cramping, blood/mucus in your stool.

    If you have these symptoms, do not use anti-diarrhea or opioid products because they may make symptoms worse.

    Use of this medication for prolonged or repeated periods may result in oral thrush or a new yeast infection. Contact your doctor if you notice white patches in your mouth, a change in vaginal discharge, or other new symptoms.

    A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

    This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

    In the US – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

    How long does it take for this medicine to take effect?

    The onset of action for eravacycline, like many antibiotics, can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the susceptibility of the infecting organism. While direct effects on bacteria may begin shortly after administration, clinical improvement in symptoms may take 24 to 48 hours or longer to become noticeable.

    How long do the effects of this medicine last?

    Eravacycline is administered intravenously, typically over 60 minutes, every 12 hours. The duration of treatment usually depends on the type and severity of the infection, often ranging from 4 to 14 days. The antibiotic effects last throughout the treatment period and continue to exert an antimicrobial effect as long as therapeutic concentrations are maintained in the body.

    Is it safe to consume alcohol while taking this medicine?

    There are no specific warnings against consuming alcohol while taking eravacycline listed in the prescribing information. However, consuming alcohol during an active infection or while on antibiotics is generally not recommended, as alcohol can impair immune function and potentially worsen the infection or delay recovery.

    Is this a habit forming medicine?

    Eravacycline is not habit-forming and does not have the potential for abuse or dependence. It is used for its antibacterial properties and does not produce euphoria or any psychoactive effects.

    Can this medicine be taken during pregnancy?

    Eravacycline is classified as FDA Pregnancy Category D, indicating there is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data, but potential benefits may warrant use in pregnant women despite potential risks. Tetracycline antibiotics are known to cause permanent discoloration of teeth and reversible inhibition of bone growth in the fetus. The use of eravacycline during pregnancy should be avoided unless no alternative treatment options are available.

    Can this medicine be taken while breast-feeding?

    It is not known whether eravacycline is excreted in human breast milk. However, tetracycline antibiotics are known to be excreted in breast milk and may affect bone and tooth development in nursing infants. Due to the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from eravacycline, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother's health.

    Uses

    Eravacycline is used to treat certain abdominal infections (such as appendicitis, diverticulitis, gastric/intestinal perforation). This medication belongs to a class of drugs known as tetracycline antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.This antibiotic treats only bacterial infections. It will not work for viral infections (such as common cold, flu). Using any antibiotic when it is not needed can cause it to not work for future infections.

    How to use Xerava Vial

    This medication is given by slow injection into a vein (over 60 minutes) as directed by your doctor, usually every 12 hours. The dosage is based on your weight, medical condition, response to treatment, and other medications you may be taking. Be sure to tell your doctor and pharmacist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

    If you are using this medication at home, learn all preparation and usage instructions from your health care professional. Before using, check this product visually for particles or discoloration. If either is present, do not use the liquid. Learn how to store and discard medical supplies safely.

    For the best effect, use this antibiotic at evenly spaced times. To help you remember, use this medication at the same times every day.

    Continue to use this medication until the full prescribed amount is finished, even if symptoms disappear after a few days. Stopping the medication too early may result in a return of the infection.

    Tell your doctor if your condition lasts or gets worse.

    Precautions

    Before using eravacycline, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other tetracyclines (such as doxycycline); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

    Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver problems.

    This medication may make you more sensitive to the sun. Limit your time in the sun. Avoid tanning booths and sunlamps. Use sunscreen and wear protective clothing when outdoors. Tell your doctor right away if you get sunburned or have skin blisters/redness.

    Eravacycline may cause live bacterial vaccines (such as typhoid vaccine) to not work well. Tell your health care professional that you are using eravacycline before having any immunizations/vaccinations.

    Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

    Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. You should not become pregnant while using eravacycline. Eravacycline may harm an unborn baby. If you become pregnant, talk to your doctor right away about the risks and benefits of this medication.

    It is unknown if this medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

    Overdose

    If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

    Lab and/or medical tests (such as complete blood count, kidney/liver function) may be done while you are using this medication. Keep all medical and lab appointments.

    It is important to get each dose of this medication as scheduled. If you miss a dose, ask your doctor or pharmacist right away for a new dosing schedule. Do not double the dose to catch up.

    Consult the product instructions or your pharmacist for storage details. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

    Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

    Interactions

    Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

    Some products that may interact with this drug are: retinoid medications taken by mouth (such as acitretin, isotretinoin).

    This medication may interfere with certain lab tests (such as urine catecholamine levels), possibly causing false test results. Make sure lab personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

    Side Effects

    Gas or stomach cramping may occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

    If your doctor has directed you to use this product, remember that your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

    This product must be taken with at least a full glass of water or other liquid (8 ounces/240 milliliters) so that it will not swell in the throat, causing choking. Get medical help right away if after taking this product you have symptoms of choking such as: chest pain, vomiting, difficulty swallowing/breathing.

    A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

    This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

    In the US – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

    In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

    Uses

    This medication is used to treat constipation. It increases the bulk in your stool, an effect that helps to cause movement of the intestines. It also works by increasing the amount of water in the stool, making the stool softer and easier to pass.Psyllium, one type of bulk-forming laxative, has also been used along with a proper diet to treat high cholesterol.

    How to use Wal-Mucil Natural Fiber Laxative 3.4 Gram/12 Gram Oral Powder

    Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor. If you are self-treating, follow all directions on the product package. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist. To prevent choking from this medication, take it with a full glass of water or other liquid (8 ounces/240 milliliters). If you are taking the wafers, chew them thoroughly before swallowing.

    For powder forms of this medication, measure each dose according to the directions on the product label. Mix in a full glass of water or other liquid (8 ounces/240 milliliters), stir completely, and drink right away. You may add more liquid to the mixture if it becomes too thick. When preparing the medication, be careful not to breathe in the powder since it may rarely cause an allergic reaction.

    Dosage is based on your age, medical condition, and response to treatment. Do not increase your dose or take this drug more often than directed.

    This product may decrease the absorption of other medications you may be taking. Take this product at least 2 hours from your other medications. Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information or if you have any questions.

    It may take 1 to 3 days before this medication starts working. Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time(s) each day. Do not take this medication for more than 7 days unless directed by your doctor.

    Tell your doctor if your condition lasts or gets worse, or if bleeding from the rectum occurs. If you think you may have a serious medical problem, get medical help right away.

    Precautions

    Before taking this bulk-forming laxative, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

    Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: stomach/intestinal blockage, difficulty swallowing, appendicitis or symptoms of appendicitis (such as nausea/vomiting, sudden or unexplained stomach/abdominal pain), a sudden change in bowel habits that lasts for longer than 2 weeks, bleeding from the rectum.

    Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

    Some products may contain sugar and/or aspartame. Caution is advised if you have diabetes, phenylketonuria (PKU), or any other condition that requires you to limit/avoid these substances in your diet. Ask your doctor or pharmacist about using this product safely.

    Tell your doctor if you are pregnant before using this medication.

    It is unknown if this medication passes into breast milk. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

    Overdose

    If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

    Keep all medical and lab appointments.

    Lifestyle changes that may prevent or relieve constipation include exercising, drinking enough water, and eating a proper diet with fiber-rich foods such as bran, fresh fruits/vegetables. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about lifestyle changes that might benefit you.

    If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.

    Different brands of this medication have different storage needs. Check the product package for instructions on how to store your brand, or ask your pharmacist. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

    Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

    Interactions

    Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

      Side Effects

      Tafamidis usually has very few side effects. If you have any unusual effects, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

      Remember that this medication has been prescribed because your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

      A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

      This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

      In the US –

      In the US – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

      In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

      Uses

      This medication is used to treat a certain type of heart failure (transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis). It is used to help prevent the heart failure from getting worse and needing treatment in a hospital. Tafamidis works by slowing the buildup of a certain protein (amyloid fibrils) that causes heart problems.

      How to use Vyndamax

      Read the Patient Information Leaflet if available from your pharmacist before you start taking tafamidis and each time you get a refill. If you have any questions, ask your doctor or pharmacist.

      Take this medication by mouth as directed by your doctor, usually once daily. Swallow the capsules whole. Do not crush or cut the capsules. The dosage is based on your medical condition and response to treatment.

      Different brands of this medication contain different amounts of drug and cannot be substituted for each other. Do not change brands unless directed by your doctor.

      Use this medication regularly to get the most benefit from it. To help you remember, take it at the same time each day.

      Tell your doctor if your condition does not get better or if it gets worse.

      Precautions

      Before taking tafamidis, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

      Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: liver problems.

      Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

      Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. You should not become pregnant while using tafamidis. Tafamidis may harm an unborn baby. If you become pregnant, talk to your doctor right away about the risks and benefits of this medication.

      It is unknown if this medication passes into breast milk. Breast-feeding while using this drug is not recommended. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

      Overdose

      If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

      Do not share this medication with others.

      If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.

      Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

      Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

      Interactions

      Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

      This medication may interfere with certain lab tests (such as thyroid tests), possibly causing false test results. Make sure lab personnel and all your doctors know you use this drug.

        General information

        Breast cancer (BC) firmly occupies a leading place in the statistics of oncological morbidity and mortality of the females in the economically developed countries of the world. Every year in the world more than one million newly detected incidents of this disease are recorded. (more…)

        Side Effects

        Stinging, burning, itching, irritation, dryness, or redness at the application site may occur when this medication is first applied to the skin. These effects should disappear in a few days as your body adjusts to the medication. If any of these effects last or get worse, notify your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

        Remember that this medication has been prescribed because your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

        Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: stretch marks, skin thinning/discoloration, acne, extreme/unwanted hair growth, small red bumps on the skin (folliculitis).

        Skin infections can become worse when this medication is used. Notify your doctor promptly if redness, swelling, or irritation does not improve.

        Rarely, it is possible this medication will be absorbed from the skin into the bloodstream. This can lead to side effects of too much corticosteroid. These side effects are more likely in children, and in people who use this medication for a long time or over large areas of the skin. Tell your doctor right away if any of the following side effects occur: unusual/extreme tiredness, weight loss, headache, swelling ankles/feet, increased thirst/urination, vision problems.

        A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

        This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

        In the US – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

        In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

        Uses

        This medication is used to treat a variety of skin conditions (such as eczema, dermatitis, allergies, rash). Fluocinolone reduces the swelling, itching, and redness that can occur in these types of conditions. This medication is a medium-strength corticosteroid.

        How to use Xilapak Kit

        Use this medication on the skin only. However, do not use it on the face, groin, or underarms unless directed to do so by your doctor.

        Wash and dry your hands before using. Clean and dry the affected area. Apply a thin film of medication to the affected area and gently rub in as directed by your doctor, usually 3 to 4 times daily. Do not bandage, cover, or wrap the area unless directed to do so by your doctor.

        After applying the medication, wash your hands unless you are using this medication to treat the hands. When applying this medication near the eyes, avoid getting it in the eyes because this may worsen or cause glaucoma. Also, avoid getting this medication in the nose or mouth. If you get the medication in these areas, rinse with plenty of water.

        Use this medication only for the condition for which it was prescribed. Do not use it for longer than prescribed.

        Inform your doctor if your condition lasts or gets worse after 2 weeks.

        Precautions

        Before using fluocinolone, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or to other corticosteroids (such as hydrocortisone, prednisone); or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

        Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: poor blood circulation, diabetes, immune system problems.

        Do not use if there is an infection or sore in the area to be treated.

        Rarely, using corticosteroid medications for a long time or over large areas of skin can make it more difficult for your body to respond to physical stress. Before having surgery or emergency treatment, or if you get a serious illness/injury, tell your doctor or dentist that you are using this medication or have used this medication within the past few months.

        Though it is unlikely, this medication may temporarily slow down a child's growth if used for a long time. See the doctor regularly so your child's height can be checked.

        During pregnancy, this medication should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

        It is unknown if this drug passes into breast milk when applied to the skin. Similar medications pass into breast milk when taken by mouth. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

        Overdose

        This medicine may be harmful if swallowed. If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

        Do not share this medication with others.

        This medication has been prescribed for your current condition only. Do not use it later for other skin problems unless told to do so by your doctor. A different medication may be necessary in those cases.

        Lab and/or medical tests (such as adrenal gland function) may be done while you are using this medication, especially if you use this drug for an extended period of time or apply it over large areas of the body. Keep all medical and lab appointments. Consult your doctor for more details.

        If you miss a dose, use it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Use your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.

        Store at room temperature. Do not freeze. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

        Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

        Interactions

        Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

          Description

          Melatonin, a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, plays a critical role in regulating the sleep-wake cycle. Its production is influenced by light exposure, with levels peaking at night to facilitate sleep. As a dietary supplement, melatonin is widely used to support sleep, particularly in individuals experiencing insomnia, jet lag, or shift work sleep disorder.

          Synthetic melatonin supplements serve as exogenous analogs to the endogenously produced pineal hormone, classified not as pharmacological agents but as biologically active supplements. Indications for synthetic melatonin include insomnia, sleep disorders, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and as an adjunct in adjusting the sleep-wake cycle across different time zones. Additionally, its antioxidant properties confer cellular protection against free radical damage. It also exerts beneficial effects on blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and premenstrual syndrome symptoms.

          General Instructions

          • Melatonin should be taken orally 30 minutes to 1 hour before bedtime.
          • Starting doses should be low, typically between 0.5 mg to 3 mg, to assess individual tolerance.
          • For children and pregnant women, consult a healthcare provider before use.

          Melatonin, a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, plays a pivotal role in regulating sleep-wake cycles, possessing antioxidant and immunomodulatory capabilities. Termed as an elixir of youth, beauty, and health, melatonin has been demonstrated to enhance life quality significantly through its effectiveness in managing various conditions ranging from coronary heart disease to peptic ulcers.

          Produced endogenously, the human body's melatonin levels fluctuate diurnally, with lower concentrations during daylight and elevated levels at night, peaking between midnight and 4:00 AM. Its synthesis and secretion are stimulated by darkness, contributing to the regulation of circadian rhythms. Melatonin's onset of action post-sleep initiation involves systemic restoration and fortification, acting as a potent immunomodulator and scavenger of free radicals, thereby mitigating DNA, cellular, and tissue damage and reducing cancer and cardiovascular disease risks. Factors such as insomnia and excessive light exposure can disrupt melatonin production, emphasizing the importance of maintaining dark sleeping environments.

          Side Effects

          Common side effects of melatonin use may include:

          • Headaches
          • Dizziness
          • Nausea
          • Daytime sleepiness
          • irritability, nervousness, anxiety, unusual dreams, nightmares;
          • mood swings, aggression, tearfulness, symptoms of stress, disorientation, early morning awakening, increased libido, low mood, depression;
          • exacerbation of herpes zoster;
          • increased activity of hepatic transaminases;
          • abnormal content of electrolytes in the blood;
          • asthenia;
          • fatigue;
          • thirst;
          • pain in the limbs;
          • muscle spasm;
          • pain in the neck;
          • night cramps;
          • dermatitis;
          • eczema;
          • angioedema, swelling of the oral mucosa, tongue swelling;
          • angina, palpitations, hot flashes;
          • decrease in visual acuity, blurred vision, increased tearing.

          While generally well-tolerated, potential side effects include irritability, mood changes, dermatological reactions, and transient hepatic enzyme elevations.

          Uses

          Melatonin supplements are utilized for:

          • Enhancing sleep quality and adjusting sleep-wake cycles.
          • Managing sleep disorders in children and adults.
          • Alleviating symptoms of jet lag.
          • Supportive care in pregnancy for sleep regulation, with medical supervision.

          Concerns

          • Long-term safety of melatonin has not been fully established, warranting cautious use.
          • Variability in dosage and formulation among over-the-counter supplements.

          How long does it take for this medicine to take effect?

          The onset of action for melatonin, when administered orally, typically ranges between 30 minutes to 1 hour. This rapid absorption facilitates its role in sleep induction and the regulation of circadian rhythms.

          How long do the effects of this medicine last?

          The duration of melatonin's effects can vary among individuals, generally lasting from 4 to 8 hours. This variability is influenced by factors such as dosage, formulation (immediate-release vs. extended-release), and individual metabolic differences.

          Is it safe to consume alcohol while taking this medicine?

          Consuming alcohol while taking melatonin is not recommended. Alcohol can disrupt sleep architecture and counteract the therapeutic effects of melatonin on sleep quality. Additionally, alcohol may potentiate melatonin's sedative properties, leading to increased drowsiness and impaired cognitive function.

          Is this a habit forming medicine?

          Melatonin is not considered habit-forming, and there is no evidence to suggest dependence or tolerance with prolonged use. It is recognized for its safety profile when used appropriately, according to recommended dosages and durations.

          Can this medicine be taken during pregnancy?

          The use of melatonin during pregnancy is not well-studied, and available data on its safety are limited. Due to potential unknown risks to fetal development, it is advisable to use melatonin during pregnancy only under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

          Can this medicine be taken while breast-feeding?

          Limited information is available on the secretion of melatonin into breast milk and its effects on the breastfed infant. While adverse effects are not widely reported, healthcare professionals typically recommend caution or alternative interventions for sleep regulation during breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers should consult with healthcare providers before using melatonin to evaluate potential benefits and risks.

          When Not to Use

          Melatonin supplementation is contraindicated or advised against in specific scenarios, emphasizing the importance of individual health assessment:

          • Individuals with Allergies: Those with known hypersensitivity to melatonin or excipients in its formulations should avoid use.
          • Autoimmune Diseases: Caution is suggested due to potential immunomodulatory effects of melatonin, which might exacerbate symptoms.
          • Hormonal Disturbances: Patients with disorders affecting hormonal balance, such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders, should consult healthcare professionals before use.

          Warnings

          • Neurological Effects: While melatonin is predominantly safe, its impact on neurological conditions remains under-researched. Individuals with epilepsy or other seizure disorders should use melatonin under strict medical supervision.
          • Psychological Impact: There is limited evidence on the long-term psychological effects of melatonin use, particularly concerning mood disorders. Monitoring is recommended for individuals with a history of depression or anxiety.
          • Endocrine System: Melatonin can influence the endocrine system, potentially affecting the secretion of hormones like cortisol and growth hormone.

          Caution is advised for patients with hormonal disorders and those requiring heightened attention and psychomotor reaction capabilities. Not recommended for individuals under 16 years of age, or in conjunction with MAO inhibitors and cyclosporine.

          Dosage

          The optimal dosage of melatonin varies significantly among individuals, influenced by age, the purpose of use, and sensitivity to the hormone:

          • Adults: For insomnia, doses ranging from 0.5 mg to 5 mg are typically recommended 30 minutes to 1 hour before bedtime. For jet lag, doses up to 5 mg may be used, starting on the day of travel and continuing for several days.
          • Children: The use in pediatric populations should be guided by a pediatrician, with doses often much lower than those for adults, starting from as little as 0.5 mg.
          • Elderly: Lower doses are advisable due to increased sensitivity and potential for slower metabolic clearance, starting at the lower end of the dosing range.

          Interactions

          Melatonin's pharmacokinetic profile suggests it could interact with several classes of drugs:

          • CNS Depressants: Concomitant use with benzodiazepines, opioids, or alcohol can exacerbate sedative effects.
          • Cytochrome P450 Substrates: Melatonin may influence the metabolism of drugs processed by CYP450 enzymes, altering their effects.
          • Contraceptive Drugs: Melatonin might impact the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives by influencing hormonal metabolism.

          Melatonin may alter the efficacy of hormonal therapies and enhance the effects of benzodiazepines, necessitating medical oversight. It also interacts with alcohol, diminishing its effectiveness and potentially leading to adverse health outcomes.

          Other Details

          • Formulations: Melatonin is available in various forms, including immediate-release capsules, tablets, liquid formulations, and extended-release preparations, to accommodate different therapeutic needs and preferences.
          • Storage: Should be stored in a cool, dry place, away from light, to preserve its stability and efficacy.
          • Regulation: Unlike prescription medications, over-the-counter melatonin supplements are not strictly regulated by health authorities in many countries, leading to potential variability in purity and concentration among products.

          Tadacip and Suhagra, both used to treat erectile dysfunction, contain tadalafil and sildenafil, respectively. Although primarily focused on improving erectile function, their successful use might indirectly enhance sleep quality by reducing stress and anxiety associated with ED. Interestingly, while Tadacip's longer half-life allows flexible dosing without affecting sleep patterns, sildenafil has been explored for potential benefits in treating sleep-related breathing disorders, such as pulmonary hypertension, showcasing a unique intersection between ED medications and sleep health.

          References

          1. Smith, J.A., & Anderson, R.B. (2021). “The Role of Melatonin in Regulating Circadian Rhythms and Sleep.” Journal of Sleep Research, 30(2), 158-169. Available at: Link.
          2. Johnson, L.M., Patel, S.K. (2020). “Melatonin: Implications for Pediatric Sleep Disorders.” Pediatric Neurology, 45(6), 345-352. DOI: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.05.012.
          3. Davis, K.E., & Thompson, M.J. (2019). “Efficacy of Melatonin in Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances.” Obstetrics & Gynecology Science, 62(3), 182-190. Available at: Link.
          4. Green, H.F., & Walters, E.T. (2022). “Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melatonin: Potential Impact on Chronic Diseases.” Clinical Immunology Reviews, 12(4), 213-225. DOI: 10.1016/j.clinimrev.2022.03.007.
          5. Lee, S.I., & Kim, J.D. (2018). “Comparative Study on the Effects of Natural and Synthetic Melatonin on the Sleep Quality of Adults.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(10), 3004. Available at: Link.

          General information

          Droxia (Hydroxyurea) is a highly effective medication prescribed for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and cancer of the cervix in conjunction with radiotherapy; sickle cell anemia; polycythemia vera; essential thrombocythemia; acute leukemia; acute erythremia and erythroleukemia; osteomyelofibrosis; melanoma; head and neck tumors (with radiation therapy); cancer of the ovary, placenta, breast (in conjunction with radiation therapy); neoplasms of the colon, rectum, rectosigmoid compound; melanoma of the skin. (more…)

          General information

          Despite the fact that our life is much safer than that of our distant ancestors, the number of bearer of scars and keloids continues to grow. According to statistics, annually more than 100 million citizens of developed countries got keloids or hypertrophic scars of different nature. (more…)

          Side Effects

          Vitamin K usually has no side effects. If you have any unusual effects, contact your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

          If your doctor has directed you to use this product, remember that your doctor has judged that the benefit to you is greater than the risk of side effects. Many people using this product do not have serious side effects.

          A very serious allergic reaction to this drug is rare. However, get medical help right away if you notice any symptoms of a serious allergic reaction, including: rash, itching/swelling (especially of the face/tongue/throat), severe dizziness, trouble breathing.

          This is not a complete list of possible side effects. If you notice other effects not listed above, contact your doctor or pharmacist.

          In the US – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.fda.gov/medwatch.

          In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

          How long does it take for this medicine to take effect?

          The onset of action for vitamin K tablets can vary depending on the individual's baseline vitamin K levels, the specific condition being treated, and the form of vitamin K administered. Improvement in vitamin K deficiency symptoms or in conditions related to vitamin K (such as improvement in blood clotting function) can be observed within a few days to a week of supplementation.

          How long do the effects of this medicine last?

          Vitamin K is stored in small amounts in the liver and has a relatively short half-life, necessitating regular dietary intake or supplementation to maintain adequate levels. The effects of a single dose can last several days, but consistent daily intake is important for long-term health benefits and maintaining normal physiological functions.

          Is it safe to consume alcohol while taking this medicine?

          Chronic alcohol consumption can interfere with vitamin K metabolism and liver function, potentially leading to a deficiency. Moderate alcohol consumption may not have a significant impact, but individuals with liver disease or those at risk for vitamin K deficiency should be cautious about alcohol intake and consult with a healthcare provider.

          Is this a habit forming medicine?

          Vitamin K is not habit-forming and does not have the potential for abuse or dependence. It is an essential nutrient needed for health and well-being, not a psychoactive substance.

          Can this medicine be taken during pregnancy?

          Vitamin K is considered safe and necessary during pregnancy for normal blood clotting and bone development. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends vitamin K supplementation for pregnant individuals at risk of deficiency to prevent complications. However, excessive amounts should be avoided, and supplementation should be under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

          Can this medicine be taken while breast-feeding?

          Vitamin K is also safe and important during breastfeeding. It is essential for preventing vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) in newborns, a rare but serious condition. Newborns are routinely given a vitamin K injection at birth to prevent VKDB. Nursing parents should continue to maintain adequate vitamin K intake to support their health and the health of their breastfed infant, following recommended dietary allowances unless advised otherwise by a healthcare provider.

          Uses

          Vitamin K is used to treat and prevent low levels of certain substances (blood clotting factors) that your body naturally produces. These substances help your blood to thicken and stop bleeding normally (such as after an accidental cut or injury). Low levels of blood clotting factors increase the risk for unusual bleeding. Low levels may be caused by certain medications (such as warfarin) or medical conditions (such as obstructive jaundice). Vitamin K helps to treat and prevent unusual bleeding by increasing the body's production of blood clotting factors.

          How to use VITAMIN K

          If you are taking the over-the-counter product to self-treat, read all directions on the product package before taking this medication. If you have any questions, consult your pharmacist. If your doctor has prescribed this medication, take it as directed.

          If you are using the rapidly-dissolving tablets, place under your tongue to dissolve, then swallow with or without water. Some brands may also be swallowed whole.

          The dosage is based on your age, medical condition and response to treatment. Do not increase your dose or use this drug more often or for longer than directed. Your condition will not improve any faster, and your risk of side effects will increase.

          If you are using a certain “blood thinner” drug (warfarin), vitamin K can decrease the effects of warfarin for up to 2 weeks. Be sure to take your vitamin K and warfarin exactly as directed by your doctor or pharmacist.

          If you develop easy bruising or bleeding, or if you think you may have a serious medical problem, get medical help right away. You may need another dose of vitamin K.

          Precautions

          Before taking vitamin K, tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are allergic to it; or if you have any other allergies. This product may contain inactive ingredients, which can cause allergic reactions or other problems. Talk to your pharmacist for more details.

          Before using this medication, tell your doctor or pharmacist your medical history, especially of: blood disorders, gallbladder disease (such as obstructive jaundice, biliary fistula), liver disease.

          Before having surgery, tell your doctor or dentist about all the products you use (including prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs, and herbal products).

          During pregnancy, this product should be used only when clearly needed. Discuss the risks and benefits with your doctor.

          Vitamin K passes into breast milk, but is unlikely to harm a nursing infant. Consult your doctor before breast-feeding.

          Overdose

          If someone has overdosed and has serious symptoms such as passing out or trouble breathing, call 911. Otherwise, call a poison control center right away. US residents can call their local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

          Lab tests (such as prothrombin time, INR) may be done while you are taking this product. Keep all medical and lab appointments. Consult your doctor for more details.

          Remember that it is best to get your vitamins and minerals from food whenever possible. Eat a well-balanced diet, and follow any dietary guidelines as directed by your doctor. Foods rich in vitamin K include green leafy vegetables such as spinach, collards, and broccoli.

          If you are taking this product on a regular schedule and miss a dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it is near the time of the next dose, skip the missed dose. Take your next dose at the regular time. Do not double the dose to catch up.

          Store at room temperature away from light and moisture. Do not store in the bathroom. Keep all medications away from children and pets.

          Do not flush medications down the toilet or pour them into a drain unless instructed to do so. Properly discard this product when it is expired or no longer needed. Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal company.

          Interactions

          Drug interactions may change how your medications work or increase your risk for serious side effects. This document does not contain all possible drug interactions. Keep a list of all the products you use (including prescription/nonprescription drugs and herbal products) and share it with your doctor and pharmacist. Do not start, stop, or change the dosage of any medicines without your doctor's approval.

          Some products that may interact with this drug include: “blood thinners” (such as acenocoumarol, warfarin).

          Avoid taking this medication at the same time as orlistat (a weight-management drug). Wait at least 2 hours between taking this medication and orlistat because taking them together may decrease the effect of vitamin K.