What are the causes of keratitis?
The cause of the keratitis development can be the smallest injury or a fracture of the cornea due to the allergic conjunctivitis. Often foreign particles get into the eyes, which leave a wound on the surface of the cornea. Sometimes the eyes are injured by sharp branches of plants. Infection within such cracks can result in purulent keratitis development.
A foreign body (even microscopic dust particles) between the lens and the eye can cause corneal inflammation. In case of discomfort you have to remove the lens immediately; rinse it and the eye itself. If the lenses are chosen incorrectly and sit very tightly on the eyes it may result in the vessels compression, disturbance the eyes feeding, which in its turn leads to the trophic keratitis development. Therefore, the lens must fit and be movable, without blocking the free access of the tear fluid. In addition, colonies of bacteria and fungi on the lenses are generated during long-term wearing, which become the cause of corneal inflammation. The lenses need to be carefully maintained and changed after the expiration date.
They distinguish exogenous and endogenous inflammations.
Exogenous keratitis: traumatic disorder caused by mechanical, chemical and other damage; it can be of bacterial origin; or be of viral etiology; fungal diseases of the cornea; corneal inflammation caused by conjunctival diseases, eyelids and Meibomian glands.
Endogenous keratitis: infectious and neurogenic origin, hypovitaminosis and vitamin deficiency; as well as disorder of unclear etiology.
The main symptom of the disease is the cornea transparency disorder, due to its swelling and infiltration of cellular elements. The epithelium of the cornea loses its luster, becomes rough, as if wasted, sometimes flaking and exfoliating resulting in a superficial defect (erosion).
Depending on the severity of the disease progression, it can result in either a complete restoration of the transparency of the cornea and visual acuity, or its clouding, that is, the appearance of a cataract. Sometimes the inflammation spreads so deep into the corneal tissue that it causes perforation, and the infection gets inside the eye. In this case, a surgery is needed to replace the affected area of the cornea.
In case of strong myopia, the keratoconus may develop, and further trophic inflammation.
Herpetic keratitis is a serious disease. Anyone can get sick, because the herpes virus is in the blood. Reduced immunity is the main cause of activation of this insidious virus.
In order to prescribe treatment, you first need to determine the source of infection and identify the pathogen that caused the inflammation. If the disease is caused by a viral infection, then it is treated with antiviral drugs, if it is a fungus, then antifungal drugs are prescribed, and if it is a microbe, then antibiotics are used.
To prevent the this disorder, it is necessary to observe personal hygiene, touch your eyes as less as possible, do not injure them and get rid of chronic foci of infection (rhinitis, sinusitis).