What causes high triglycerides but normal cholesterol?
Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood. It is the main source of energy and the most common type of fat found in the body. They enter the blood in the form of absorbed fat from food (exogenous) or synthesized in the liver from carbohydrates or released into the blood from subcutaneous fat when glucose is exhausted (endogenous).
- This simple fat, which is a combination of 3 fatty acids and glycerin triatomic alcohol, got its name in connection with a special structure: three + glyceride.
- The main purpose of the TG – power source: 1 g of triglycerides provides 9 kcal of energy. This is twice the capacity of carbohydrates and proteins. In adipose tissue the they create a stationary depot, in vessels – mobile.
- An external source of this substance is food. In the intestine with the help of lipases, it breaks down into glyceride and fatty acids.
- Then they are again synthesized in the mucosa: being concentrated, they are transferred to the lymph, where they are picked up by the chylomicrons and sent to the liver.
- The internal source of TG is the liver, adipose tissue, intestines, in which it is synthesized from carbohydrates. The VLDL (the very low density lipoproteins) are transported to the tissues.
- Triglycerides do not dissolve in water; they are transported along the bloodstream by VLDL and chylomicron. In the body, most amount of this agent is concentrated in the fatty tissues, the rest move with the bloodstream, providing muscles with energy.
Factors causing high level of triglycerides include:
- uncompensated diabetes;
- insufficiently active thyroid gland (thyroid insufficiency);
- renal disorders;
- consumption more calories than burning them off;
- Excessive drink of alcohol;
Certain types of high cholesterine and triglycerides can be caused by hereditary factors. The rate of cholesterine in the blood depends on the age and sex of the patient, endocrine profile and general health. The optimal level of total cholesterol is below 5 mmol/l. The maximum permissible level of total cholesterol is up to 6 mmol/l. High total cholesterol is more than 6 mmol/l. Doctors look not only at the general cholesterine, but also at the level of LDL and HDL.
For people at high risk of heart disease and blood vessels, the optimal level of LDL is below 1.8 mmol/l. For those who do not have a predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, the level is from 2.6 to 3.3 mmol/l. The maximum allowable level of LDL is up to 4.1 mmol/l, and higher figures indicate the development of pathology. The level of “good” HDL cholesterol more than 1.6 mmol/l is an excellent indicator. For women, the norm is 1.3–1.5 mmol/l, and for men it is 1.0– 1.3 mmol/l. Lower levels of HDL are a bad indicator.