What is a joint deformity?
The following causes of joint deformation are distinguished:
It is consequences of injuries of bones and joints.
The causes of deformity of joints in adults are most often diaphysial fractures (shins, hips, forearms, shoulders). The causes of deformity of joints in children are damage to the epiphyseal zone that extend to the cartilage plate of bone growth. In addition, the likelihood of post-traumatic deformity in children and adults is high enough for near- and intra-articular displaced fracture.
Consequences of soft tissue injuries.
Deformities of the limbs can occur after burns, as well as extensive wounds with a soft tissue defect and nerve damage.
Such anomalies include hypoplasia and aplasia of the bones of the limbs, congenital dislocations and incomplete dislocation of the joints, congenital disorders of the function of germinative layer and etc. The most common cause of development of deformities is dysplasia of a hip joint.
Joints deformities in adults are more likely to result from post-traumatic osteomyelitis. Joints deformities in children are more likely to result from hematogenous osteomyelitis. In addition, the cause of this pathology may be purulent arthritis of traumatic or non-traumatic origin.
Benign and malignant tumours.
Joints deformity can progress as a result of a pathological process in the cartilage or bone tissue or become the outcome of treatment (for example, after resection of the bone site).
Diseases of the musculo-skeletal system.
The cause of deformity of joints can be multiple exostosis chondrodysplasia, Ollie's disease (endochondromatous dysplasia), achondroplasia, Blount disease, Paget's disease (deforming ostosis), Touraine-Solent-Gole disease etc.
- Systemic connective tissue diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, SLE, scleroderma, Sjogren's syndrome, generalized chondromalacia and etc.
- Specific infections: tertiary syphilis (due to progressive paralysis or gummy damage to bones and joints), congenital syphilis, osteoarticular tuberculosis.
- Degenerative and dystrophic joint diseases (primary and secondary arthrosis). Most often clinically significant deformities of the joints are observed with gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis.
In addition, deformities can develop with paresis, paralysis, rickets and some endocrine diseases. An important role in the diagnosis of joint deformities is simple examination. Therefore, it requires special attention. Simple examination is performed according to a certain algorithm.
When making a visual examination pay attention to the presence of bone swelling, swelling of soft tissues, the degree of development and symmetry of the muscles, hemorrhages and other changes on the skin, the presence or absence of tenderness in palpation.