What is a survey?
Engineering and geological surveys are the initial stage in the construction of any facility and are completely dependent on the type of the future facility (industrial enterprise, residential building, road, etc.). Therefore, the research for each type of object has its own specifics, its features, but all of them have something in common, some standard.
Results of engineering and geological studies in the form of a report are sent to the construction design organization.
They should contain materials meeting the following main items:
- assessment of the overall suitability of the site for the construction of this facility;
- material, which allows solving all questions on the footings and foundations;
- evaluation of the ground base on the susceptibility of possible dynamic of the object;
- the availability of geological processes and their impact on the sustainability of the future facility;
- a complete description of groundwater;
- all information about the soil, both for the selection of the bearing foundation and for the excavation work;
- information on the impact of the future facility on the natural environment.
These studies make it possible to provide technical justification for feasibility and the principle possibility of construction in a specific locality at the design stage. If it is necessary to assess preliminary the economic feasibility of construction in a given area, and engineering geological surveys are an obligatory stage of pre-project preparation.
In the course of these studies, the features of the relief and hydrological regime of the future development area are determined, and the mechanical composition of the soil is also a subject of a study. Based on these data the tectonic and seismological characteristics of the territory are compiled, as well as a forecast of the likely change in the course of geomorphological, hydrological and other processes due to the influence of the constructed object. A comprehensive engineering and geological survey of the future construction bears a key importance in its planning and is carried out at the stage of pre-project preparation.
Engineering and geological studies are aimed at determination of the site allocated for construction reliability. It should be done just before the beginning of the future facility design. The choice of the foundation type and further design are made on the basis of physical and chemical properties of the soil and the hydrological regime of the site data (in particular, the level of groundwater standing). When there is insufficient or complete absence of such survey data, the probability of errors increases during design. An incorrectly designed foundation can subsequently cause deformation and premature destruction of the erected building.