What is vldl cholesterol?
Vldl cholesterol means very low density lipoproteins cholesterol, it’s one of the most aggressive types of cholesterol. At excess it lays on vascular walls in form of plaques which can limit blood circulation through vessels. Besides they make vessels more rigid (atherosclerosis) that considerably increases risk of heart diseases (ischemic disease, heart attack) and stroke.
Besides, vldl are the main carriers of one more type of fats in the organism, they're called triglycerides. Increased level of triglycerides also provokes development of atherosclerosis.
Sufficient amount of cholesterol and triglycerides is produced in the liver, however some part of these fats is suplied with food, generally with meat and dairy products. If a person has hereditary predisposition to increase in cholesterol and triglycerides or eats too much food containing holesterol, then cholesterol level in blood can raise and do harm to the organism.
Increased concentration of vldl cholesterol can be caused by hereditary predisposition (family hypercholesterolemia) or excess consumption of food rich with animal fats. At most of people with raised cholesterol level both reasons are involved.
Other possible reasons of increased vldl cholesterol level:
- cholestasis or bile stagnation which can be caused by liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis) or stones in gall bladder,
- chronic inflammation of kidneys leading to nephrotic syndrome,
- chronic renal failure,
- decrease in function of thyroid gland (hypothyroidism),
- badly cured diabetes,
- prostate cancer or pancreas.
Lowered vldl cholesterol level has no special clinical value, it can be observed at the following states:
- hereditary hypercholesterolemia,
- serious liver desease,
- oncological marrow diseases,
- increase of thyroid gland function (hyperthyroidism),
- inflammatory joint diseases,
- B12- or folate deficiency anemia,
- widespread burns,
- acute diseases, acute infections,
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Factors increasing vldl cholesterin level:
- long starvation,
- blood donation in standing position,
- anabolic steroids, androgens, corticosteroids,
- meal containing animal fats.
Factors decreasing vldl cholesterin level:
- stay in lying position,
- allopurinol, clofibrate, colchicine, antifungal medicines, statins, cholestyramine, erythromycin, estrogen,
- intensive physical activity,
- diet with a low content of cholesterol and saturated fatty acids and, on the contrary, high content of polynonsaturated fatty acids.
Factors increasing risk of development of cardiovascular diseases:
- age (men over 45 years old, women over 55 years old)
- increased arterial blood pressure (140/90 millimeter of mercury and above),
- increase in cholesterol or cardiovascular diseases at other family members,
- coronary heart disease, old myocardial infarction or stroke,
- excess body weight,
- alcohol abuse,
- low physical activity.