Cystitis is a common urinary tract infection (UTI) that primarily affects the bladder. It is characterized by inflammation of the bladder wall, leading to various symptoms such as frequent and urgent need to urinate, burning sensation during urination, cloudy or strong-smelling urine, lower abdominal pain, and sometimes blood in urine.

Cystitis – Infectious Diseases

Cystitis is more prevalent in women due to their shorter urethra which makes it easier for bacteria to enter the bladder. The most common cause of cystitis is a bacterial infection, with Escherichia coli (E. coli) being the most common bacteria involved. Other potential causes include sexual activity, certain types of contraceptives, menopause, urinary tract abnormalities, and suppressed immune system.

Treatment for cystitis usually involves a course of antibiotics to eliminate the infection. Drinking plenty of fluids, particularly water, is also recommended to flush out the bacteria and promote healing. Additionally, warm compresses and over-the-counter pain relievers can help alleviate discomfort.

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Prevention of cystitis involves maintaining good personal hygiene, wiping front to back after using the toilet, urinating before and after sexual activity, avoiding irritants such as perfumed products, and staying properly hydrated.

If left untreated, cystitis can lead to more severe complications like kidney infection or the infection spreading to the bloodstream. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Disease Causes
  • Urinary tract infection (UTI): The most common cause of cystitis is a bacterial infection in the urinary tract.
  • Sexual activity: Sexual intercourse can introduce bacteria into the urethra, increasing the risk of cystitis.
  • Using certain types of birth control: Some forms of birth control, such as diaphragms and spermicidal agents, can increase the risk of cystitis.
  • Menopause: Decreased estrogen levels during menopause can make the urinary tract more vulnerable to infections.
  • Obstruction in the urinary tract: Any factor that obstructs the flow of urine can increase the likelihood of cystitis.
  • Bladder abnormalities: Structural abnormalities in the bladder can make it more prone to infections.
  • Weakened immune system: A weakened immune system due to conditions like diabetes or HIV/AIDS can make individuals more susceptible to cystitis.
  • Using a urinary catheter: Inserting a urinary catheter can introduce bacteria into the urinary tract, leading to cystitis.
  • Personal hygiene habits: Poor genital hygiene practices can increase the risk of cystitis.


  • Frequent urination
  • Urgency to urinate
  • Pain or discomfort during urination
  • Cloudy or bloody urine
  • Pelvic pain
  • Low fever (not always present)