By Dr. Steven Gundry
Updated 2024-03-06 17:30:01 | Published 2023-04-02 04:47:27
  • Diseases
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    • Explore the Diseases category on iMedix for comprehensive insights into various health conditions. This section offers detailed information on symptoms, causes, treatments, and preventive measures, providing a valuable resource for understanding and managing health challenges.

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An abstract illustration of Panophthalmitis

Panophthalmitis is a severe and rare inflammatory condition that affects the entire eye, including its external and internal structures. It is characterized by a rapid and destructive infection within the eye, involving the conjunctiva, cornea, uvea, retina, and even the optic nerve.

Panophthalmitis lecture opthalmology

What is Panophthalmitis?

Panophthalmitis is a severe and aggressive form of ocular infection that affects all layers and structures of the eye. It is a rare but serious condition often leading to significant inflammation and potential loss of vision.

What Causes Panophthalmitis?

Panophthalmitis is commonly caused by bacterial infections, particularly following eye surgery, trauma, or spread from a systemic infection. Organisms like Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Pseudomonas are often implicated.

What are the Symptoms of Panophthalmitis?

Symptoms include severe eye pain, redness, swelling, and loss of vision. There may also be systemic symptoms like fever. The condition progresses rapidly, often causing noticeable symptoms within hours or days.

How is Panophthalmitis Diagnosed?

Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, symptoms, and medical history. Imaging studies like MRI or CT scan may be used to assess the extent of infection. Laboratory tests, including cultures, can identify the causative organism.

What is the Treatment for Panophthalmitis?

Treatment involves aggressive antibiotic therapy, often intravenously, based on the suspected or confirmed causative organism. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses or remove infected tissues.

Can Panophthalmitis be Prevented?

Prevention focuses on reducing the risk of infection, particularly after eye surgery or injury. This includes proper wound care, use of sterile techniques during surgical procedures, and prompt treatment of any ocular infections.

What are the Complications of Panophthalmitis?

Complications include irreversible loss of vision, spread of infection to surrounding structures including the brain (orbital cellulitis, meningitis), and potential loss of the eye (enucleation) in severe cases.

This condition usually occurs as a severe complication of an untreated or inadequately treated intraocular infection such as endophthalmitis. It can also arise from trauma, surgical complications, or spread from nearby infected structures.

Symptoms of panophthalmitis include intense eye pain, redness, swelling, discharge, vision loss, extremely elevated intraocular pressure, and systemic signs of infection such as fever and malaise.

Immediate medical attention is necessary as panophthalmitis can cause irreversible damage to the eye and pose a risk to the patient's overall health. Treatment typically involves a combination of intravenous antibiotics, surgical drainage of the infected fluids, and sometimes removal of the eye (enucleation) to prevent further spread of the infection.

Reducing Disease Burden:

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Prevention of panophthalmitis involves prompt and appropriate treatment of any ocular infection, careful post-operative care, and adherence to recommended hygiene practices to minimize the risk of microbial contamination.



  • Infection spread from nearby structures such as the sinuses or middle ear
  • Infection introduced into the eye through trauma or surgery
  • Contamination of contact lenses or lens solution
  • Spread of infection from another part of the body through the bloodstream
  • Complications of other eye infections, such as endophthalmitis or keratitis
Disease Name Panophthalmitis
General Symptoms
  • Severe eye pain
  • Redness and inflammation of the eye
  • Swelling of the eyelids
  • Vision loss or blurriness
  • Increase in eye discharge
  • Feeling of a foreign body or grittiness in the eye
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Fever and general malaise in severe cases
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