Tularemia, also known as rabbit fever or deer fly fever, is a rare infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. It primarily affects animals, especially rabbits, hares, and rodents, but can be transmitted to humans through various means.

Francisella tularensis (Tularemia)

Common methods of transmission include tick and deer fly bites, handling of infected animal tissues, ingestion of contaminated water or food, and inhalation of contaminated aerosols.

Symptoms of tularemia vary depending on the route of infection and can include sudden fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, fatigue, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, and skin ulcers. In more severe cases, it can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and systemic infections.

Tularemia is diagnosed through laboratory tests, such as blood cultures or antibody tests. Treatment typically involves the use of antibiotics, with streptomycin being the drug of choice. Timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent complications and promote recovery.

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To prevent tularemia, individuals should avoid direct contact with sick or dead animals, wear protective clothing when outdoors in high-risk areas, use insect repellent, and ensure proper cooking and handling of meat. Vaccines for tularemia are available, but they are primarily used for those at high risk of exposure, such as laboratory workers or military personnel.

Overall, while tularemia is a relatively rare disease, it is important to be aware of it, especially for individuals living in areas with a higher prevalence or engaging in activities that increase the risk of exposure.



  • Infection with the bacterium Francisella tularensis
  • Transmission through various routes, such as:
    • Bites from ticks, deer flies, or other insects
    • Direct contact with infected animals or their carcasses
    • Ingestion of contaminated water or food
    • Inhalation of respiratory droplets or dust particles


  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Joint pain
  • Dry cough
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Ulcers at the site of infection (if acquired through skin contact)