Azithromycin or Zithromax is a fairly effective third-generation antibiotic and has a complex multi-level formula. This medication has minimal resistance to different types of pathogenic bacteria, which allows it to be used in most inflammatory diseases.
Azithromycin is included into the group of macrolide antimicrobial drugs, which is considered as one of the safest antibiotic groups.
This antibiotic is a systemic antibacterial agent.
- Therapeutic dose of Zithromax inhibits the division and reproduction of microflora, and the increased concentration completely destroys pathogenic microorganisms.
- This antibiotic of macrolide group is most effective against anaerobic microflora, all types of streptococci, ureoplasma, mycoplasma, campylobacter and bordetella.
- Such health disorders as pharyngitis, sore throat, tonsillitis, acute infections of the respiratory tract, sinusitis, frontitis, otitis, tracheitis, duodenitis, cholecystitis, gastric ulcer, purulent dermatitis, duodenal ulcers are treated with Azithromycin.
- The drug has a sufficiently high efficacy against pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchiectasis, cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis, periodontitis, flux, periostinitis, and inflammatory processes in soft tissues.
- In case of arachnoiditis, encephalitis and meningitis, it can be used as an additional auxiliary preparation for complex antibacterial therapy.
- Depending on the dosage, the antibiotic contains active ingredient in a dose of 125, 250 or 500 mg in 1 capsule or tablet.
Like any other pharmacological preparations, this antibiotic medication has its own contraindications and must be used with certain precautions. First of all, it is the individual intolerance of the drug by the patient – an allergy to the active agent. Counter-indications to this drug also include allergic reactions to other antimicrobial agents included into the macrolide group.
The discussed medication cannot be applied in children before six months, as well as lactating and pregnant women. In the overwhelming majority of cases, the drug is well tolerated by patients, with the exception of people suffering from intolerance and allergies to erythromycin antibiotics.
The FDA, in its communique dated March 12, 2013, warns that Azithromycin may cause the development of a prolonged Q-T syndrome and, as a result, the development of arrhythmia. When analyzing the number of deaths from cardiovascular causes in individuals taking Azithromycin , amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin or not taking antimicrobial agents, it was found that the number of fatal cardiovascular events in patients undergoing a five-day course of this drug therapy is greater comparing to those who have took amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin or not taking antibiotics at all.
The FDA prescribes that instructions for drugs containing Azithromycin be supplemented by a record that it can cause a Q-T interval prolongation and the arrhythmias development.
Zithromax (Azithromycin) Dosage
The antibiotic of macrolide group is used against many bacterial diseases. The most used dosage form is capsules. The dosage and frequency of the drug administration must be prescribed only by an individual physician, based on the clinical symptoms of the pathology and concomitant circumstances.
The dosage of this drug depends on the inflammatory disease severity in various fields of medicine, for example:
1. Otolaryngological diseases:
- The lesion of the paranasal sinuses – sinusitis: frontal sinusitis, antritis, ethmoiditis as well as sphenoiditis.
- Tonsilitis – amygdalopathy, including strep throat.
- Inflammation of the pharyngeal mucosa – pharyngitis.
- The lesion of the tympanic cavity – otitis media.
2. Pathologies of the respiratory apparatus:
- Inflammation of the lung tissue of various etiologies – inflammation of the lungs.
- Chronic bronchitis.
3. Any surgical pathology in which sensitivity to this active ingredient has been identified.
4. Dermatovenerological diseases:
- Erysipelatous inflammation.
- superficial pyoderma.
- consecutive dermatosis.
5. Urogenital diseases:
- Cervical inflammation – cervicitis.
- Gonorrheal as well as urethritis.
- Bladder disease – cystitis.
6. The early stages of erythema migrans – borreliosis or Lyme disease.
How to take Zithromax (Azithromycin )?
There is a general rule which prescribes that this remedy has to be used once a day, just an hour prior or two hours post meal. In case of infections of upper and lower respiratory, infections of the skin and soft tissues tract the adults, are prescribed to take 0.5 g per day during 3 days, and in case of uncomplicated urinary tract diseases (uncomplicated urethritis or cervicitis) – once time 2 tablets of 0.5 g. Children are prescribed at the dosage of 10 mg per kg of the child weight once a day during 3 days.
Azithromysin in the powder should be dissolved in water. Then it must be shook well before use and take once inside. Zithromax has to be taken in fasting state, at least one hour prior or two hours after a meal.
At the same time it is not recommended to be taken by breastfeeding and pregnant women. This is due to the fact that this remedy is able to penetrate the hematological barrier between the placenta and the fetus and negatively affect the child in the womb. During pregnancy this medication is allowed only if its positive effect on the mother’s body is more important than that harmful to the fetus.
This antibacterial agent is available in many dosage forms, despite having the one common name Azithromycin. The method of application is somewhat different depending on the form.
Tablets and capsules are used in the appropriate dosage 60 minutes prior meals, or 2 hours after it. A tablet or capsule is swallowed and washed down with a small amount of pure water.
The time of taking the suspension is similar to capsules and tablets. At the same time the method of application is somewhat different, since before using the oral suspension it must be prepared manually. To do this, use a syringe to collect boiled water in the required quantity and add to the vial, then shake well.
Also, any dosage form of the discussed remedy should be taken with special caution in case of diagnosed liver, kidney diseases, and cardiac arrhythmias, as they can be significantly aggravated under the influence of the drug.
Zithromax (Azithromycin) Side-effects
The antibiotic with the discussed active ingredient, in addition to the main therapeutic effect, can provoke side reactions. Possible adverse reactions from various organs and systems include different disorders manifestations of: Gastrointestinal tract; Skin reactions; Central nervous system; Cardiovascular system; Genitourinary system; Allergic reactions;
Zithromax (Azithromycin) Overdose
The following side effects can be manifested in case of taken high dose of the remedy: temporary hearing loss, sickness, vomiting, diarrhea. The first aid in this case stomach lavage and other symptomatic therapy.
Zithromax is usually well tolerated, but in some cases there may some certain side reactions occur.
- General conditions: in rare cases candidiasis and edema can be manifested.
- Blood-forming system: this active ingredient seldom provokes thrombocytopenia.
- Reproductive system: rare cases of vaginitis have been reported in patients taking this drug.
- Digestive system: sickness, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea often appeared; rarely – pancreatitis, gaseous distention, constipation, tastes and smells perversion, anorexia, change in the tongue color.
- Urinary system: there is a small likelihood of impaired kidney function, interstitial nephritis.
- Liver and gallbladder: while treatment with this drug such disorders as infectious hepatitis, jaundice, and impaired liver function rarely occurred.
- A heart: there have been reported cases of cardiac abnormalities when using Zithromax, such as arrhythmia, tachycardia, hypotension, increased heart rate.
- Nervous system, organs of sight, hearing: rarely there were observed such disorders as hyperactivity, anxiety, aggressiveness, convulsions, dysguesia, taste-blindness, insomnia, hearing or vision impairment, headache, excessive fatigue, fainting, hypoesthesia, asthenia, anosmia, paresthesia.
- Skin: this antibiotic can rarely be the cause of allergic reactions, like photosensitivity, swelling, itching, necrolysis, rashes, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or erythema.
- Muscles and bones: infrequently, the drug can cause myasthenia gravis, arthralgia.
The simultaneous use of Zithromax and other medicines may cause certain reactions:
For example, Terfenadine, Rifabutin, Didanosine, Methylprednisolone, Carbamazepine, Theophylline in combination with Azithromycin should be used with caution due to the lack of a sufficient number of studies.
Zidovudine. It can cause the increase of the phosphorylated compound of this drug amount in mononuclear cells.
Digoxin, Cyclosporine. These drugs level should be investigated, since the antibiotic with the discussed active ingredient may increase their concentration.
Antacids. The use of this group antibiotics is allowed 1 hour prior or 2 hours after taking the macrolide group antibiotic.
Anticoagulants based on coumarin. There exist a high risk of bleeding.
Treatment with antibiotics is a serious stress for the digestive and excretory systems of even a practically healthy person. That is why it is not necessary to test your body for strength and use alcohol while treating serious infections with this remedy. It is important to remember: the compatibility of this medication and alcohol is kept at zero. Treatment requires a complete and unconditional waiver of any alcoholic beverages. Violation of this prohibition may lead to the most adverse consequences.
Zithromax (Azithromycin) Reviews
Sarah: The drug helped me a lot when I had sore throat and otitis. Also it helped me when I had inflammation of the uterus.
Dorothy: My daughter was diagnosed with otitis interna. She was 6 at that time. The doctor prescribed the drug from the group of macrolides in the appropriate dosage. Pain in the ear disappeared the next day after taking the drug. I am very pleased.
Sam: I got some Chlamydial infection and my doctor prescribed me to use Zithromax. I took it as he recommended and in two weeks the test showed that I recovered.