Generic Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) is an Anti-Infective Medicine. It is a medicine from the group of fluoroquinolones. This drug is usually prescribed more often than other antibacterial medicines.
Cipro is a pluripotential medicine. It has high activity and it is indicated for the treatment of many infectious diseases. Action of the medicine is close to antibiotics but differs from them in chemical structure and origin. Antibiotics are products of natural origin or similar synthetic analogues of nature-occurring compounds. Fluoroquinolones do not have natural analogues. They are completely synthetic medicaments.
The main component of the drug is a substance of synthetic origin called Ciprofloxacin.
The medicine is available with a different dosage of the main component. One pill can contain 250, 500 or 750 mg of Ciprofloxacin. In addition to the main component, it contains additive components. These are:
- magnesium stearate;
- hydroxypropyl methylcellulose;
- polyethylene oxide 4000.
This antibacterial medicine has pronounced antimicrobial and bactericidal properties. It is especially good at fighting gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. This group of microorganisms includes:
- blue pus bacillus;
- Haemophilus influenzae;
- colon bacillus;
- causative agents of bacillary dysentery;
- Salmonella spp;
- N. gonorrhoeae.
The medicine also acts actively on strains of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. A group of antibacterial preparations of fluoroquinolones has a harmful effect on microbes that produce beta-lactamases.
Development of a resistance of bacteria to Ciprofloxacin takes a very long time. This is a big plus of the medicine. However, there is a group of microorganisms with high resistance to ciprofloxacin. This group includes:
- Streptococcus faecium;
- Ureaplasma urealyticum;
- Nocardia asteroides;
- Treponema pallidum.
The medicine is well-known among the clinical experts of all the countries of the globe for its perfectly expressed suppression DNA gyrase of microorganisms. It destroys DNA synthesis of microorganisms and, as a result stops the growth and multiplication of bacteria.
Cipro is used for the treatment of various diseases but self-medication is absolutely undesirable. This can and will be dangerous to health. Only attending medical doctor can correctly prescribe the medicine and advise what should be the dosage.
The medicine can be prescribed in the following cases:
- skin diseases (apostem, pyogenic cellulitis, trophic ulcers). Also, the drug is used after mechanical injuries, such as burns and wounds, complicated by infection;
- venereal diseases (gonorrhea, chlamydia);
- diseases of anatomical airway. Ciprofloxacin can be prescribed for bronchitis, multiple bronchiectasis, pneumonia, cystic fibrosis;
- gastrointestinal diseases (peritoneal abscess, typhoid fever, peritonitis of various etiologies, cholecystitis, infectious diseases of the stomach and intestinal canal);
- spine and joints disorders (infectional arthritis, osteomyelitis);
- diseases of ENT-organ. There are many indications for the use of ciprofloxacin in these cases. These are tonsillitis, sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, genyantritis, pharyngitis, otitis interna, angor;
- kidney tract infection. There are cystitis, pyelonephritis, endometritis;
- infectious diseases caused by decrease in immunity.
One of the indications for the use of the drug is the prevention of an inhaled formulation of anthrax.
This antibacterial medicine is absorbed fully and very efficiently in the digestive tract when taken orally. The strongest concentration of the active substance in the blood occurs after 1.5 – 2 hours after medication intake. The drug has a fairly high bioavailability. It is almost 70%.
The average percentage of plasma protein binding is about 40.
After taking a pill the active substance is evenly distributed within the tissues of the body. The concentration of the active substance in the tissues of the body is greater than in the blood. The active substance of the medicine has good permeability. It can penetrate the placenta and into breast milk. It accumulates in the bile. The half-life of the substance is approximately 4 hours.
Cipro, like any medicine of antibacterial action, and actually all other pharmaceutical tools of that kind, has treatment contraindications.
There are a number of factors in which the medicine treatment is expressly prohibited.
- children's age below 18;
- intolerance to components of the medicine;
- kidney failures.
Prescribing the medicine during pregnancy and lactation is not recommended.
The daily dosage is from 0,5 to 1.5 g. This dosage is usually divided into two or three equal fraction. If the medication intake is planned twice in 24 hours, the time interval between doses should be at least 12 hours. If the medication intake is thrice in 24 hours, the time interval should be not less than 8 hours.
If the patient misses the next medication intake, then the missed dose should be taken as soon as possible. However if a lot of time has passed since that, then just use the medicine according to the prescribed scheme.
Do not take a double dose of the medicine!
Tablets should be taken orally without chewing and with a reasonably large amount of water.
How to take?
Medication intake is not dependent on the food regimen. The medicine can be used before, after or during a meal. Thus many doctors recommend doing this on an empty stomach. They note the fact that the active substance (Ciprofloxacin) is absorbed into the gastrointestinal mucosa much faster on an empty stomach.
The treatment regimen looks like this:
- Urinary tract infections. In mild case a dose of 250 or 500 mg is administered twice a day. In case of complicated disease a dose of 250 or 500 mg is prescribed twice a day.
- Diseases of lower airway in a mild case are treated twice a day with a dose of 250 mg. With a complicated form of the disease the drug is prescribed twice a day for 500 mg.
- In the treatment of venereal diseases the dosage of Ciprofloxacin is 250-500 mg per dose.
- Gynecological diseases and urological diseases are treated with a dose of 500 mg twice a day.
- In case of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and joints the drug is prescribed in a dose of 500 mg twice a day.
- Diarrhea and pain in intestinal canal of infectious etiology are treated with a dose of 250 mg twice daily;
- With inhaled formulation of anthrax the drug is prescribed twice a day in a dose of 500 mg;
- Preventative measures in the presence of invasive infections are made by a single dose of 500 mg.
Treatment duration should be determined by the attending medical doctor. It depends on the form, severity, dynamics of disease, general state of the patient and individual characteristics of a person.
Each human body reacts differently to this or that medicine. Adverse events can occur in one or more organs.
Most often adverse reactions to a medication intake come from:
- central nervous system (headaches, sleep disturbance, state anxiety, rapid fatigability, hyperhidrosis, disorder of consciousness);
- heart and blood vessels (rapid heart, jumps in arterial blood pressure, heat waves);
- sensory organs (dysfunction of taste perception and olfaction, amblyacousia and visual deterioration);
- gastro-intestinal tract (nausea accompanied by vomiting, gaseous distention, diarrhea, epigastric pain);
- musculoskeletal system and muscles (arthritis, myodynia, tendinous synovitis);
- blood-forming organ (anaemia, leukopenia, thrombocytosis);
- genitourinary system (dysuria, polyuria, retention of urine, urethral bleeding);
- allergic manifestations (hives, redness, sloughing of skin and itch, skin puffiness).
There are no characteristic signs of overdose. Excessive reception of the medicine can trigger any of side effects enumerated above.
If the patient has any symptoms other than the disease it is necessary to stop taking the medication and seek medical advice. It is necessary to carry out emergency detoxification when overdose is severe. After this, attending medical doctor usually prescribes some maintenance therapy.
Active ingredient (Ciprofloxacin) belongs to the group of fluoroquinolones. Therefore, its effectiveness decreases with simultaneous use of the drug with antacids and medicines containing iron, aluminum, magnesium and zinc ions.
The interval between taking these drugs and Cipro should be at least 4 hours.
Medical products containing Theophylline and Cyclosporin inhibit the elimination of Ciprofloxacin. This increases the toxicity of the medicine.
During treatment patients should refrain from driving as the drug may cause drowsiness and dizziness.
Drug and Alcohol
Simultaneous medication intake and alcoholic drinks aggravates manifestation of adverse events.
Therefore, alcohol should be completely excluded during period of treatment.
- Dr. Adamson Cipro is the first line drug of antibiotic therapy in urology. The effectiveness of the drug is high, however, higher and uncontrolled use causes a decrease in effectiveness. This drug predisposes to dysbacteriosis and stomatitis. I did not see many patients with allergic reactions in my practice. It is necessary to monitor blood tests if the drug is taken for more than 5 days.
- Dr. Edwards This is one of the best broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs. Cipro is especially effective for respiratory tract infections, genitourinary tract and soft tissue infections. It has minimal effect on the normal indestinal flora. This allows you to apply the drug without fear of severe dysbiosis. According to my observations, the drug causes moderate hematologic toxicity in some patients which is expressed by a decrease in the number of platelets.
Alan My doctor assigned me а therapy by Clarithromycin (macrolide antibiotic) for the treatment of acute bronchitis. This drug did not improve my physical condition and on the third day of use caused an allergy in the form of Quincke's edema. Then the doctor prescribed me a Cipro tableted form. My condition improved by midday of the second day of intake, namely, the wheezing sounds with exhalation are gone, breathing became less harsh, and the cough became more productive. A day later the doctor stated that the wheezing had disappeared. The five-day course of regimen in complex with expectorant mixture was brought to the end. Cipro coped with my bronchitis. The most wonderful thing is that the side effects did not bother me.