What are some of the most common problems affecting the eyes?

Published at 21.09.2018 08:20

Myopia.

According to experts, more than 1.2 billion people around the world wear glasses with negative diopters to correct myopia. In most cases, people do not see far into the distance because they have increased the length of the eyeball. In this case, the image of the object is formed not on the retina of the eye, but in front of it.

The main causes of myopia are:

  • Heredity. The chances of myopia in a child are 50% if both parents suffer from myopia;
  • Overwork and overexertion of the eyes. Myopia is provoked by heavy loads when working at close range, with poor lighting, lying and etc.;
  • Injuries of the eye.

Age related hypermetropia (Presbyopia).

About a quarter of the world’s population is facing this problem. Often, hyperopia overtakes a person after 45 to 50 years when the ability of the crystalline lens to change the curvature decreases. As a result of this disease, images of objects begin to focus behind the retina and the person has to keep at a distance small objects to see them. Doctors believe that presbyopia is a natural and inevitable consequence of aging. At the same time, today more and more scientists tend to recognize the fact that aging is a violation of the body’s functions, similar to a disease. Aging can be slowed down and adjusted if the appropriate treatment is started on time. At present, drugs-geroprotectors (which protect against aging) are undergoing clinical trials and have not appeared in pharmacies. Therefore, the good old glasses with “plus” dioptries remain the main method of correcting the presbyopia.

Cataract.

This disease is associated with clouding the lens of the eye and occurs in the elderly in 90% of cases. The danger of this ailment lies in the high risk of blindness. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) about 19 million people worldwide are blinded by cataracts. To date, there is only one effective method of cataract treatment. This method is an surgical operation to remove and replace the damaged lens of the eye. About 10 million such surgical operations are peformed every year around the world.

Glaucoma.

This is another common disease that occurs in people of old age. Symptom of this disease is a constant or periodic increase in intraocular pressure. This symptom over time leads to a decrease in visual acuity, atrophy (dying out) of the ophthalmic nerve and blindness (in the worst case). Glaucoma is considered incurable disease today but long-term remission can be achieved and the development of the disease slowed down by proper therapy.

Often, patients are prescribed drops to normalize intraocular pressure. Microsurgical methods are used (including using a laser) in more complicated case.

Dry eye syndrome (Keratoconjunctivitis sicca).

This vision problem is common among people of any age. Dry eye syndrome often affects young people, especially those who wear lenses and / or work at a computer for a long time. People of mature age develop age-related dry eye syndrome.

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