What is the function of kidneys in the body?

Published at 25.09.2018 11:17
Kidneys are one of the most important filtrational organs in the human body. This paired organ is located in retroperitoneal space, namely on the back surface of the abdominal cavity in the waist zone on both sides of the backbone. The right organ is located slightly below the left one. Many of us consider that the only kidney function consists in generation and removal of urine. However besides the secretory function they have a lot of other tasks. In our article we will consider their main functions in detail.

Kidney functions in the human body:

  • homeostatic;
  • excretory or secretory;
  • metabolic;
  • protective;
  • endocrine.

Excretory function

The secretory role consists in blood filtration, its clearing of metabolism products and their removal from the organism. At the same time blood is purified of creatinine, urea, various toxins, for example, from ammonia. Also various unnecessary organic compounds (amino acids and glucose), mineral salts which have got in the organism together with food are removed. Kidneys remove excessive liquid. Filtration, reabsorption and kidney secretion are parts of secretory function. At the same time within one day 1500 l of blood are filtered through this organ. About 175 l of primary urine are filtered at once. But as there is liquid absorption, the amount of primary urine is reduced to 500 ml – 2 liters and removed through the urinary system. Urine consists of liquid for 95 percent and the remained five percent are solid substance.

Homeostatic and metabolic functions

You shouldn’t underestimate value of kidneys in regulation of intercellular liquid and blood volume in the human body. This organ participates also in regulation of ionic balance, bringing surplus of ions and protons of bicarbonate out of blood plasma. It’s capable to support necessary liquid volume in our organism due to adjustment of ionic structure. This paired organ participates in peptides and amino acids splitting and also in lipids, proteins, carbohydrates exchange. In this organ, usual vitamin D is transformed to an active form, namely D3 vitamin which is necessary for normal calcium assimilation. This organ is also an active participant of protein synthesis.

Endocrine and protective functions

Kidneys are an active participant of synthesis of the following substances and compounds, which are necessary for your organism: renin is a substance which promotes production of the angiotensin 2 having vasoconstrictive effect and regulating blood pressure; calcitriol is a special hormone which regulates calcic exchange processes in the organism; erythropoietin is necessary for formation of marrow cells; prostaglandins, the substances participating in process of blood pressure adjustment. As for protective function of this organ, it’s connected with removal of toxic substances like certain medicines, alcohol, narcotic substances (nicotine) from your organism.

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