What is the female climacteric?

Published at 19.08.2018 12:02
Female climacteric or menopause is the period when the body is preparing to “cut off” the reproductive system. At this time, the amount of estrogen, the female sex hormone, decreases, and this process is accompanied by a variety of changes in the health condition. Ovarian failure is a long process, which takes 5-6 years, and sometimes even more. Menopause begins approximately 2 years before the last menstruation and ends 3-4 years after it. This long process can be divided into three stages:

Premenopause

Usually it begins at the age of 45, although it is very individual. Sometimes the first signs appear in 38-40 years old women, and sometimes women almost do not feel any changes until 50. Ovaries still function, but menstruation becomes irregular, and the intervals between them increase. During this period, some women can feel hot flashes for the first time, some of them note a decrease in libido, headaches and other unpleasant signs.

Menopause

50-53 years is the average age when a woman experiences menopause. The ovaries stop functioning, menstrual periods stop, although they can still come at a very large interval. Changes caused by a lack of estrogen become most pronounced. During this period the bones become fragile, there is a high risk of cardiovascular diseases and even diabetes mellitus development.

Postmenopause

This term refers to the period from the last menstruation to the end of life. During postmenopause period all symptoms presented at climacterical period usually disappear. Majority of climacteric symptoms accompany premenopausal and climacterical periods. Both these periods can collectively last on average from 5 to 10 years.

During this period a woman experiences so called hot flashes. This is perhaps the most typical symptom of climacterical period. Hot flashes are usually a sudden increase in body temperature – it seems that the face is “burning”, red spots appear on the neck and chest. Hot flashes occur regularly, up to several times a day.

Another symptom is brittleness of the bones. During menopause, the body loses calcium, causing the bones to become brittle. Scientists have calculated that a woman loses up to 2-3% of bone mass annually during the climacterical period.

Furthermore the fatty layer under the skin atrophies. The amount of collagen, which keeps the skin smooth and supple, decreases. The skin becomes thin, wrinkles appear. With age, metabolism slows down and women notice that they begin to gain flesh, even if they do not change the principles of healthy eating.

Insomnia is often one of the first signs of climacterical period approach. Already at the age of 40-45 years some women face difficulties in falling asleep, they often wake up at night, and in the morning they can hardly get out of bed. Nearly a third of women of mature age face these or other sleep disorders.

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