Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a term used to describe an infection of the female reproductive organs, particularly the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. This condition occurs when bacteria from the vagina or cervix enter and spread through the reproductive organs, causing inflammation and damage to the pelvic structures.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Signs & Symptoms (& Why They Occur)

PID is usually caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia or gonorrhea, but it can also arise due to other types of bacteria that are normally found in the vagina. Women who engage in unprotected sex, have multiple sexual partners, or douching are at a higher risk of developing PID.

Symptoms of PID may include lower abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge with a strong odor, painful urination, irregular menstrual bleeding, fever, and pain during sexual intercourse. However, some women may experience no symptoms at all.

If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, chronic pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy, and an increased risk of pelvic adhesions or abscesses. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics are essential to prevent long-term consequences.

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Prevention of PID involves practicing safe sex by using condoms, limiting sexual partners, and undergoing regular screening for STIs. It is also important to seek early medical attention if any symptoms of PID arise or if there is a history of exposure to an STI.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

The causes of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease include:

  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
  • Bacterial infections from various sources
  • Previous history of pelvic infection
  • Insertion of an intrauterine device (IUD)
  • Unprotected sexual intercourse
  • Sexual intercourse at an early age
  • Having multiple sexual partners
  • History of previous pelvic surgeries

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease


  • Pain in the lower abdomen
  • Heavy or irregular menstrual bleeding
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Fever
  • Unusual vaginal discharge
  • Painful urination
  • Pain or tenderness in the pelvis